Oral Diseases and Low Birth Weight

Oral Diseases and Low Birth Weight

Poor oral hygiene can lead to many systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases to erectile dysfunction due to the pathogens- leads to bacteremia. Pregnancy, if you feel about this, is one of the most critical periods to be well. Health throughout pregnancy, after all, impacts the entire life. Throughout pregnancy, changes will make females more vulnerable to gum disease when being healthy is necessary.

The incidence of severe oral disease is not much, although a significant concern is poor oral hygiene. Periodontal severe illness in the maternal has reportedly been documented to be correlated in some populations with the high prevalence of low-birth-weight.

How can oral diseases be linked to low birth weight?

The association between gum diseases and child delivery of premature low birth weight acts as a chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reservoir responsible for the manufacture of many interleukins such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) especially prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and other inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor (TFN alpha), which are associated with premature or low weight birth and fetotoxicity (EG & KP, 2007). Elevated estrogen and progesterone hormones may contribute to a condition called “pregnancy gingivitis,” which starts to appear as early as two months. This is a blessing in several respects since it puts the current plaque trapped between the teeth to the front, and it serves as a sign that has lousy hygiene issues are on the horizon, such as periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is caused by improper cleaning and flossing practices. If grooming is not strengthened or left unchecked, it may cause tooth loss.

Prostaglandins as a trick factor

Both diseases inside the oral cavity are gingivitis and periodontal disease, and, consequently, the system does have an inflammatory reaction to protect itself. As a metabolic end, inflammation due to these infections causes bacteria to release prostaglandins. In particular, so less inflammatory response during pregnancy in the oral cavity, the less risk it is of an unplanned delivery. As studies on prostaglandins and their effect on childbirth are still in their development, the safest way to prevent complications seems to be to practice good oral hygiene at the time of pregnancy. A definite, distinct, and significant risk factor for low birth weight is periodontitis (Khan, et al., 2016).

Factors that increase the risk

Many aspects that are believed to affect preterm births and low birth weight babies have been studied. There are still solutions available to minimize the risk of low birth weight infants, so it may be beneficial to monitor oral health and personal oral infection (Wiener & Waters, 2018). As a potential cause for premature births, the abundance of maternal oral biofilm has also been studied (Christopher K. Hope, et al., 2014). Enhanced inflammation, loss of the ligaments, and elevated acidity in the mouth also contribute to an increased risk of dental and gum problems from physical and nutritional changes during pregnancy. Specialist associations have identified a connection regarding gum infection and insufficient premature births in many researches. A connection between the exposure of plaques and those females perceived at high-level/ elevated risk of low birth weight or preterm birth. The correlation clarified for preterm birth-related factors: such as age and smoking.

Ways to restrict pregnancy gingivitis and low birth weight

  • While gingivitis is a disease that frequently develops throughout pregnancy and then disappears after childbirth, once it is clinically apparent, there are ways to monitor and reverse an infection’s existence. One way to control gingival inflammation and the resulting release of prostaglandins is by using dental floss in the entire mouth once a day. It would displace plaque manually, which is also a recruiting ground for bacterial infections.
  • Multiple mouthwash forms have bactericidal capabilities that will minimize the number of infectious microorganisms in the mouth but not fully eradicate them. Used throughout combination with cleaning, flossing, and mouth rinse, the presence of inflammation can be reversed, and, consequently, the number of prostaglandins released can be decreased.
  • When a client is pregnant, oral hygiene should still be incredibly diligent. This involves cleaning and floss and regular check-ups with the dental professional (3-4 months). Patients reduce their chances of premature delivery by reducing prostaglandins’ occurrence in the mouth by reducing the number of bacteria in the oral cavity. Undoubtedly, researchers find that oral cavity health plays an essential role in maintaining the rest of the body secure.


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Christopher K. Hope, 1. Q. W. G. B. A. A. et al., 2014. Hygiene and Preterm Birth by Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence. The Scientific World Journal.

EG, M. & KP, M., 2007. Maternal oral health status and preterm low birth weight at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania: a case-control study. BMC Oral Health.

Khan, N. S. et al., 2016. ASSOCIATION OF MATERNAL PERIODONTITIS WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN NEWBORNS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL. Journal of Ayoub Medical College Abbotabad-Pakistan, Volume 28.

Wiener, R. C. & Waters, C., 2018. Personal Oral Infection Control, Low Birthweight, and Preterm Births in Appalachia West Virginia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Advances in preventive medicine.

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